Trinidad and Tobago are the two main islands of an archipelagic state situated at the southern end of the chain of Caribbean islands known as the Windward Islands. Being an island state Trinidad and Tobago has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) comprising roughly 75,000 km2, approximately 15 times the land area. Because of its recent separation from the South American mainland, the biota and terrestrial habitats of Trinidad reflect the ecology of equatorial South America unlike the other Windward Islands, which have ecosystems dominated by island endemic species. The vast range of terrestrial ecosystems includes evergreen seasonal, littoral woodlands, montane rainforests, swamp forests, marshes and savannahs. These support rich species diversity including approximately 420 species of birds and 85 reptiles. In the marine areas, ecosystems include mud bottoms, coral reefs, sandy bottoms and rocky shores. These support a range of macro and micro biota, such as an estimated 36 species of reef building corals. Endangered species include the manatee, the golden tree frog, the crab-eating raccoon and the blue and yellow macaw.
Mr. Assim Dilbar
Ministry of Food Production
Research Division Central Experiment Station
Trinidad and Tobago